Table 1 Journalism: The phenomenon of fake news and disinformation

While social media is replacing conventional media tools as the major source of information and news, it has become more and more difficult to maintain and regulate information flow.

People are now able to easily share their biased opinion and even spread fake news through public platforms, resulting in 86% of online users sharing that they have believed fake news was real at least once (Centre for International Governance Innovation, 2019). Especially during the current COVID-19 pandemic, people have become more reliant on social media platforms as means for communication, which increased the effect of disinformation around the globe; Therefore, media literacy is an important skill in order not to fall victim to manipulative information on the Internet.

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